Six Months Special Financing

Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI): Symptoms, Causes, and Effective Management Strategies

Chronic Venous Insufficiency

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a common yet often overlooked circulatory condition affecting millions of individuals worldwide. It occurs when the veins in the body—mainly in the legs—struggle to return blood to the heart, causing a variety of symptoms that can range from mild to debilitating. Understanding the symptoms, causes, and effective management strategies for CVI is essential for maintaining good cardiovascular health and improving the quality of life for those affected by this condition.

At Modern Heart and Vascular—a leading cardiovascular and preventative medicine practice with offices in the Houston area—we strive to provide comprehensive care and support to individuals suffering from CVI. Our team of experienced medical professionals, utilizing advanced diagnostic technologies and evidence-based treatment approaches, aims to address the full spectrum of cardiovascular health needs for our patients.

This article will explore chronic venous insufficiency in-depth, discussing its symptoms, causes, and effective management strategies to empower individuals with the knowledge and resources necessary to tackle this challenging condition.

Understanding Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI)

Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) is a condition in which the valves within the veins—mainly in the legs—lose their function, leading to inadequate blood flow back to the heart. Over time, this can result in blood pooling in the veins, causing swelling, pain, or other more severe complications. To effectively manage and treat CVI, it is crucial to recognize the symptoms and understand the underlying causes of this condition.

Symptoms of CVI

CVI can manifest in various ways that may affect an individual’s daily life and well-being. The severity of symptoms often correlates with the extent of venous insufficiency. Common symptoms of CVI include:

  1. Leg swelling (edema): The pooling of blood in the lower extremities can cause fluid buildup, resulting in swelling of the legs and ankles.
  2. Pain or aching: Some individuals with CVI may experience a dull, aching sensation in the affected areas.
  3. Leg heaviness or fatigue: A feeling of heaviness or fatigue in the legs may make it difficult to stand or walk for extended periods.
  4. Itching or burning sensation: Skin irritation, accompanied by itching or burning sensations, can develop in areas where stagnant blood pools.
  5. Skin discoloration: CVI can lead to skin changes, such as darkening or reddish-brown discoloration, due to the accumulation of iron deposits from broken down red blood cells.
  6. Skin ulcers: In more advanced cases of CVI, non-healing sores or ulcers may develop due to the disrupted blood flow and fluid buildup.

It is essential for those experiencing any of these symptoms to consult a healthcare professional, as early intervention can prevent further complications and improve overall vascular health.

Causes of CVI

CVI typically results from damage to or dysfunction of the one-way valves found within the veins. These valves are responsible for preventing blood from flowing backward as it travels toward the heart. Contributing factors and causes of CVI include:

  1. Aging: The natural aging process may lead to weakening of the vein walls and valves, increasing the risk of CVI.
  2. Family history: A genetic predisposition or family history of venous disorders may increase one’s risk of developing CVI.
  3. Inactivity: Prolonged periods of sitting or standing can contribute to poor blood flow, exacerbating CVI symptoms.
  4. Obesity: Excess body weight places added pressure on the veins, resulting in compromised valve function.
  5. Pregnancy: Hormonal changes and increased blood volume during pregnancy can strain the veins, increasing the risk for CVI.
  6. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A history of DVT, which involves blood clot formation within the deep veins, can lead to valve damage and increase the likelihood of CVI development.

Understanding and managing these underlying causes and risk factors can help develop a more effective treatment plan for individuals with CVI.

Diagnostic Tests for CVI

Prompt and accurate diagnosis of CVI is vital for initiating appropriate treatment and preventing complications. A comprehensive evaluation by a healthcare professional, including a review of medical history, physical examination, and imaging studies, may be conducted to determine the presence and severity of CVI. Some diagnostic tests that may be utilized include:

  1. Duplex ultrasound: This non-invasive imaging technique employs both traditional ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound to visualize the veins, assess blood flow, and evaluate valve function.
  2. Venogram: In some cases, a venogram may be performed, in which a contrast dye is injected into the veins before taking X-ray images to highlight blood flow and evaluate venous structure.
  3. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Advanced imaging technologies, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used in more complex cases or to rule out other vascular conditions.

Based on the results of these diagnostic tests, a healthcare professional can develop a tailored treatment plan to address the individual needs of the patient with CVI.

Conservative Management Strategies for CVI

In many cases, conservative management strategies can significantly improve CVI symptoms and prevent further complications. These non-invasive treatments focus on alleviating symptoms, promoting blood flow, and reducing risk factors. Some conservative management strategies include:

  1. Graduated compression stockings: These specialized elastic stockings apply varying levels of pressure to the legs, promoting blood flow and reducing swelling. Medical-grade compression stockings, prescribed by a healthcare professional, have been proven effective in managing CVI symptoms.
  2. Exercise: Regular physical activity, especially walking, helps to strengthen the calf muscles, which aid in pumping blood back to the heart.
  3. Elevation: Elevating the legs above heart level periodically throughout the day can help alleviate swelling and promote blood flow.
  4. Weight loss: For those who are overweight, losing weight can help reduce the pressure placed on the veins and improve CVI symptoms.
  5. Avoiding prolonged inactivity: Reducing the amount of time spent sitting or standing without movement can enhance blood circulation and minimize CVI symptoms.
  6. Skin care: Maintaining good skin hygiene and moisturizing the affected areas can help relieve itching and prevent skin ulcers from developing.

In addition to these conservative strategies, healthcare professionals might also recommend medication or more advanced treatment options based on the severity of the patient’s CVI.

Advanced Treatment Options for CVI

If conservative management strategies do not provide adequate symptom relief or if an individual’s CVI is more severe, advanced treatment options may be considered. These procedures aim to target the underlying causes of CVI and improve venous function. Some advanced treatments for CVI include:

  1. Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA): EVLA is a minimally invasive procedure in which a thin laser fiber is inserted into the affected vein. The laser energy heats up the vein, causing it to collapse and close, ultimately rerouting blood flow to healthier veins. This treatment has been shown to yield high success rates with low recurrence in patients with CVI.
  2. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA): Similar to EVLA, RFA uses radiofrequency energy instead of laser energy to heat and close the affected veins. Studies have demonstrated that RFA and EVLA are equally effective, with minimal side effects and low complication rates.
  3. Sclerotherapy: This treatment involves injecting a sclerosant agent into the affected veins, causing them to shrink and eventually fade from view. Sclerotherapy can be performed using liquid or foam agents, both of which are effective in treating CVI.
  4. Venous stenting: In cases where CVI is caused by vein blockage or compression, a stent may be placed within the vein to hold it open and facilitate blood flow. This procedure is typically reserved for patients with more severe cases of CVI or those who do not respond to other treatments.
  5. Pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis (PCDT): For CVI patients with an underlying contribution from deep vein thrombosis (DVT), PCDT combines the use of clot-busting medications and mechanical devices to remove blood clots and restore blood flow in the veins.

A healthcare professional will carefully assess a patient’s specific needs and condition to determine which treatment option is most appropriate. In some cases, a combination of therapies may be recommended to achieve optimal results.

Prevention of CVI

Given the progressive nature of CVI, individuals susceptible to this condition should embrace preventive measures to minimize its development and related complications. Strategies that may help avert or delay the onset of CVI include:

  1. Maintaining adequate physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise, particularly walking, can help promote proper blood circulation and support optimal venous function.
  2. Managing body weight: Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight can reduce the strain on the veins and decrease the likelihood of CVI.
  3. Avoiding extended periods of inactivity: Individuals should make a conscious effort to change their position frequently, whether it’s shifting weight while standing or taking breaks to walk around if sitting for extended periods.
  4. Wearing compression stockings: The consistent use of graduated compression stockings, particularly for individuals at a higher risk of developing CVI, can assist with the prevention of venous insufficiency.
  5. Elevating the legs: Periodically elevating the legs above heart level can help alleviate symptoms and prevent further complications.

While CVI is not always preventable, incorporating these strategies into daily life can mitigate the risk and support overall vascular health.

CVI and Lifestyle Optimization

As with most medical conditions, lifestyle plays a significant role in managing CVI. Incorporating healthy lifestyle choices and self-care measures can vastly improve symptoms, delay disease progression, and boost overall well-being. Optimizing one’s lifestyle might involve adopting a balanced, nutrient-rich diet to support cardiovascular health, managing stress through mindfulness practices or other relaxation techniques, and engaging in activities that promote overall wellness.

Individuals should also prioritize proper skincare in the affected areas, as skin damage can exacerbate CVI symptoms and increase the risk for complications. Keeping the skin clean, dry, and well-moisturized can help maintain its integrity and reduce the likelihood of ulcers. In addition, promptly addressing any wounds, insect bites, or other skin irritations can prevent infections and further complications.

Seamless Collaboration Between Care Providers

Coordination and collaboration among healthcare providers are integral to successfully managing CVI. A comprehensive treatment plan should involve input from various medical professionals, such as primary care physicians, interventional radiologists, vascular surgeons, and dermatologists, to ensure that all aspects of an individual’s care are well-addressed.

Further, communication among providers should be clear, timely, and focused on the individual’s best interests. This holistic approach to care can ultimately engender a higher quality of life for patients with CVI.

Understanding Post-Thrombotic Syndrome (PTS)

Post-Thrombotic Syndrome (PTS) is a long-term complication that can arise after experiencing a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). PTS occurs when damage from the initial blood clot leads to chronic venous dysfunction and persistent symptoms in the affected limb. The development of PTS can further complicate CVI management, emphasizing the importance of timely DVT treatment and ongoing care. This section delves into the symptoms, causes, prevention, and treatment strategies for PTS.

Symptoms of PTS

The severity and range of symptoms experienced with PTS can vary from person to person. However, common symptoms that individuals with PTS may encounter include:

  1. Leg pain, aching, and cramping
  2. Swelling (edema)
  3. Skin discoloration or hyperpigmentation
  4. Skin dryness, itching, or scaling
  5. Venous ulcers or slow-healing sores

These symptoms can significantly impact an individual’s daily activities, mobility, and overall quality of life, necessitating early intervention and consistent management.

Causes of PTS

The primary cause of PTS is the residual damage to the venous system following a DVT. The blood clot can cause lasting harm to the vein walls and valves, impairing their ability to transport blood from the affected limb back to the heart. Consequently, blood may pool in the veins, increasing venous pressure and leading to the characteristic symptoms of PTS.

Some additional factors may increase the likelihood of developing PTS after a DVT, including:

  1. Failure to receive prompt and appropriate treatment for the initial DVT
  2. Recurrent blood clot formation
  3. Obesity or excess weight
  4. Prolonged periods of immobility or inactivity

Understanding these contributing factors can help guide targeted prevention and treatment strategies for PTS.

Prevention of PTS

A primary approach to preventing PTS is to address the initiating factor: the DVT. Timely and effective treatment of DVT can greatly reduce the risk of developing PTS or lessen the severity of its symptoms. Moreover, adopting lifestyle modifications and interventions that promote venous health can further prevent the onset of PTS or mitigate its impact on daily life. Preventive strategies for PTS include:

  1. Strict adherence to DVT treatment plans, including blood-thinning medications and compression therapy
  2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking or swimming, to promote healthy blood circulation
  3. Maintaining a healthy body weight to reduce strain on the venous system
  4. Practicing good leg hygiene and protecting the skin from injury
  5. Elevating the affected limb above heart level when resting to alleviate swelling and promote blood flow

Incorporating these preventive measures into daily routines can have a significant impact on diminishing the likelihood and severity of PTS.

Treatment Strategies for PTS

Managing PTS involves a combination of strategies aimed at addressing the underlying venous dysfunction, relieving symptoms, and improving the quality of life for affected individuals. Like CVI, the cornerstone of PTS treatment often includes conservative, non-invasive approaches. Depending on the severity and persistence of a patient’s symptoms, these strategies may be augmented with more advanced interventions. Treatment options for PTS include:

  1. Graduated compression therapy: As with CVI, compression stockings play a vital role in managing PTS symptoms, providing external pressure to improve blood flow and reduce swelling in the affected limb.
  2. Physical activity: Consistent exercise supports optimal blood circulation, prevents further deterioration of venous function, and alleviates PTS symptoms.
  3. Skincare: Taking care of the skin in the affected limb can relieve itching, prevent infections, and reduce the risk of ulcer formation.
  4. Pain management: Over-the-counter or prescription pain medications may be recommended by a healthcare professional to help manage PTS-related discomfort.
  5. Venous stenting or angioplasty: In cases of severe or refractory PTS, minimally invasive procedures such as venous stenting or angioplasty can be employed to restore proper blood flow in the affected veins.
  6. Valve repair or transplantation: In rare instances, surgical procedures to repair or transplant damaged venous valves may be considered for patients who have not experienced success with other treatments.

As with CVI, a collaborative approach involving various healthcare professionals should be embraced to tailor a treatment plan optimal for the patient’s needs and condition.

The Role of Support Networks

Navigating life with CVI or PTS can be daunting, and having a strong support network can make a substantial difference in how one copes with and manages these conditions. Building connections with friends, family, and healthcare professionals who understand and empathize with the challenges faced by those living with CVI or PTS can provide encouragement, advice, and comfort.

Patients may benefit from joining support groups, in-person or online, where they can share experiences, learn from others, and find solace in knowing they are not alone in their journey to better vascular health.

Embracing a Heart-Healthy Future

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) are conditions that significantly impact many individuals’ lives, underscoring the importance of proactive management and treatment. By staying informed about preventive measures, adopting healthy lifestyle habits, and collaborating with healthcare professionals, patients with CVI or PTS can achieve improved vascular health and enhanced quality of life.

At Modern Heart and Vascular, we understand the challenges faced by those living with CVI and PTS, and our expert team is dedicated to providing personalized, cutting-edge care tailored to each patient’s unique needs. Through comprehensive diagnostic evaluations, advanced treatment options, and ongoing support, we are committed to partnering with you on the journey to better vascular health.

Don’t let CVI or PTS hold you back any longer. Reach out to us today to schedule a consultation and take the first steps toward embracing a future focused on heart-healthy living with our expert heart-focused services.

Modern Heart and Vascular logo


Modern Heart and Vascular, a preventive cardiology medical practice, has several offices around Houston. We have locations in Humble, Cleveland, The Woodlands, Katy, and Livingston.

We are Modern Heart and Vascular Institute, a diagnostic and preventative medicine cardiology practice.

Every heart has a story… What’s yours?

Book an Appointment Today

At the Modern Heart and Vascular Institute, we offer state-of-the-art cardiovascular care with innovative diagnostic tools and compassionate patient care. Our priority at Modern Heart and Vascular Institute is prevention. We help patients lead healthier lives by avoiding unnecessary procedures and surgeries.

Contact us online to learn more and book an appointment. If you’d like to learn more about our practice, read our providers’ bios.

This article does not provide medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you need cardiovascular care, please call us at 832-644-8930.

Request an

Every heart has a story…What’s yours?
Choose your appointment at one of our 7 locations